The following principles of academic freedom as expressed by the American Association of University Professors in its 1940 Statement of Principles were approved by the Administrative Council after consultation with the faculties; June 8, 1946, Cal. No. 5.

The purposes of the 1940 Statement of Principles of the American Association of University Professors is "to promote public understanding and support of academic freedom and tenure and agreement upon procedures and to assure them in colleges and universities. institutions of higher education are conducted for the common good and not to further the interest of either the individual teacher or the institution as a whole. The common good depends upon the free search for truth and its free exposition.

"Academic freedom is essential to these purposes and applies to both teaching and research. Freedom in research is fundamental to the advancement of truth. Academic freedom in its teaching aspect is fundamental for the protection of the rights of the teacher in teaching and of the student to freedom in learning. It carries with it duties correlative with rights.

"Tenure is a means to certain ends, specifically: (I) Freedom of teaching and research and of extramural activities, and (2) A sufficient degree of economic security, hence tenure, are indispensable to the success of an institution in fulfilling its obligations to its students and to society.

"The teacher is entitled to full freedom in research and in the publication of the results, subject to the adequate performance of his other academic duties; but research for pecuniary return should be based upon an understanding with the authorities of the Institution.

"The teacher is entitled to freedom in the classroom in discussing his subject, but he should be careful not to introduce into his teaching controversial matter which has no relation to his subject. Limitations of academic freedom because of religious or other aims of the Institution should be clearly stated in writing at the time of appointment.

"The college or university teacher is a citizen, a member of a learned profession, and an officer of an educational Institution. When he speaks or writes as a citizen, he should be free from institutional censorship or discipline, but his special position in the community imposes special obligations. As a man of learning and an educational officer, he should remember that the public may judge his profession and his Institution by his utterances. Hence he should at all times be accurate, should exercise appropriate restraint, should show respect for the opinions of others, and should make every effort to indicate that he is not an institutional spokesman."

*The word "teacher" is understood to include all those who are members of the instructional staff as defined in the Bylaws of the Board of Higher Education.

The Council of Presidents reaffirmed the principle that City University should remain a forum for the advocacy of all ideas protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution and the principles of academic freedom. (Council of Presidents Minutes 11/12/73, p. 9)