Fall 2018 Second and Third Year Elective Courses

3 credits – Professor N. Ota
This course is a problem-based introduction to federal bankruptcy law with a primary focus on the rights of consumer debtors and their creditors. The course will briefly cover creditors’ rights and debtors’ protections under state law, and then we will examine the process and adjustments that come with commencement of a case under Chapter 7 and under Chapter 13 of the bankruptcy code. If time permits, students will get an overview of business reorganization under Chapter 11 of the code. Though not a required prerequisite, UCC Survey is recommended to enhance your understanding of the concepts covered in this course.


Business Associations
3 credits – Professor N. Ota
Corporations, both large and small, are the major structures through which business is carried out in the United States today. The influence of business corporations on politics, on the environment, and on the health of communities is immeasurable. This course is designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the structure, rights, and responsibilities of private American business entities including corporations, partnerships, and limited-liability organizations with a primary focus on corporations. We will cover shareholder rights and duties, the duties and responsibilities of corporate directors and officers, and the capital structure of the corporation. Students will learn to apply statutory and case law to problems concerning the formation, development, and structuring of a typical small business.


Civil Disobedience
3 credits – Professor D. Khosla
The extermination camps of the Nazis, the incineration of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the My Lai massacre (Vietnam), the ongoing torture and rape of innocent civilians and the violence waged by governments against their own citizens in various parts of the world are all testimonials proving that men are entirely capable of committing yet greater catastrophes in the name of "superior orders."  In this age of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, an unyielding, "NO" may prove to be our sole password to the future.  Students of law know that radical changes in the social, political and legal consciousness of societies are caused not by incremental change-oriented lawyers but by those who say and continue to say "NO" to the unjust commands of duly constituted authority.  In this course, we will engage in learning the theory, practice and legal justifications of civil disobedience.  Case studies and our imaginations about challenging the select, oppressive rules of law will be the food for thought in this course.  In particular, we will discuss issues such as the necessity defense; jury nullification; the fugitive slave law; the Kvorkian phenomena (aiding one to take one's life); Operation Rescue and its impact on choice, the Stonewall riots aimed at asserting the issue of the dignity of gay and lesbian lifestyles; the civil rights movement; and objections to war based on conscience.  Please join if you really believe in the theology of liberation and CUNY motto: Law in the Service of Human Needs.


Contemplative Practice 
2 credits – Professor V. Goode
This course is designed to introduce students to the growing movement of contemplative practice and to explore its application to those who use the law for the pursuit of social justice.  Contemplative practice includes a variety of practices that quiet the mind and draw one’s consciousness inward, enabling us more skill to address the obstacles that inevitably occur in legal practice and in life.  While this “movement” is ongoing in a number of disciplines, our focus will be on lawyers who integrate the traditional skills of lawyering with contemplative practice in their career and in social justice movements.   This course will concentrate on meditation and mindfulness as a particular form of contemplative practice and will allow students to explore a variety of techniques in order to develop a meditation practice that works for them.  We will also read and discuss a number of articles that raise questions about the challenges typically faced by lawyers and how they integrate contemplative practice with their traditional legal skills.  Themes that will be explored include contemplative practice and its relationship to law, cultivating contemplative skills, Mindfulness and social justice, contemplative practice and new forms of legal practice.


Criminal Procedure I   
3 credits – Professor J. Kirchmeier  
This course explores the investigatory techniques used by law enforcement in gathering evidence, including discussion of their effectiveness and propriety in a democratic society.  The course will focus primarily on the constitutional rights protected by the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments.  Topics covered include arrests, searches, stops, police interrogations, Miranda warnings, the right to counsel, identification procedures, and the “exclusionary rule” as a means of deterring unconstitutional police conduct.   This elective is highly recommended as preparation for the bar exam.


Criminal Procedure II
2 credits - Professor R. Tomlinson
This course will examine the criminal process after the police investigation ends and the criminal prosecution begins, from post-arrest through sentencing.  It will focus on the constitutional, statutory, and other protections afforded to criminal defendants in relation to the actions of prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys, and grand and petit jurors.  The goal of the course is to develop an understanding of selected, core topics in criminal procedure adjudication, as well as to develop legal reasoning skills in this area of law.  The topics covered will include the charging process, the right to the effective assistance of counsel, bail and pretrial release, discovery, speedy trial, plea bargaining, and sentencing.  Topics will be examined through Supreme Court cases, as well as the rules of criminal procedure, statutes, lower court cases, applicable rules of professional responsibility, and transcripts of court proceedings.  Criminal Procedure I, which focuses on the investigative process, is not a prerequisite. 


Independent Study
1, 2, or 3 credits
(Faculty Permission Required)
To meet the credit requirements for graduation a student, with the permission of the Academic Dean, may take up to 3 credit hours of independent, faculty-supervised study. (A student may take fewer than 3 credit-hours of independent study at a time and may do so more than once, as long as the total number of independent study credit hours during the student's tenure at the Law School is not more than 3 or meets the requirements outlined below.) A student may also register for more than 3 credits of Independent Study if the credits are not used to meet the credit requirements for graduation. In exceptional circumstances, the student may, with the permission of the Academic Dean, register for up to 3 additional hours of Independent Study credits to meet the credit requirements for graduation.

A judicial clerkship, internship, or a law office clerkship does not satisfy the requirements of an Independent Study. However, these experiences may form the basis of further research for an independent study project. This research and writing must be done under direct faculty supervision in order to gain Independent Study credit.

Procedure for Registration for Independent Study:

  • Student obtains an Independent Study Form 
  • Student identifies faculty member willing to supervise the student’s work 
  • The student and teacher fill out the sections on the form 
  • The student obtains the signature of the Academic Dean. 
  • The student brings the form to the Office of Records and Registration. 

Note: Students must complete the registration process for this course during the regular registration and add/drop periods for the semester during which they hope to obtain credit for the course.


Individual Skills Development    
3 credits – Professor S. Lung
(2L’s Only)
The Individual Skills Development course is aimed at giving second-year students an intensive opportunity to reinforce and refine the array of analytical, test-taking, and study skills needed for successful performance in law school, on the Bar, and in the practice of law. All skills in the course will be taught through material drawn from Constitutional Structures and Evidence. We will work heavily on the analytical skills that are stressed throughout the second-year curriculum, which include analyzing, interpreting, and synthesizing cases; integrating legislative history and case law into the analysis of a statutory standard; and developing legal arguments by analogizing, distinguishing, and reconciling cases. In addition, we will use hypotheticals and problems that require students to use doctrine to construct legal and factual arguments on behalf of clients on all sides of an issue. Of equal importance to the course are the study skills that enable students to cogently structure and understand new doctrine. We will explore how to create context and framework for learning new doctrine, as well as how to map and outline the relationships between concepts. Students will have ample opportunity to apply what they have learned by taking practice multiple-choice and essay exams.  Students who enroll in ISD must also register for Evidence with Professor Chernoff and Constitutional Structures with Professor Loffredo.


Intellectual Property 
3 credits - Professor S. Shelden
This course provides a basic overview of copyright, patent, trademark, and related areas of intellectual property (IP) law, such as trade secrets and rights of publicity. Once the concern of specific businesses only, IP laws increasingly impact entities of all types and sizes, including not-for-profit organizations, individuals, and the lawyers who represent them. To take just one example: consider a health care rights group that might not regard IP as related to its mission but that, in a hypothetical day, might advocate for lower costs of a prescription drug, click through a license agreement for new accounting software, share a third-party-created meme on social media, stream music at that evening's fundraiser, and then distribute photographs of that fundraiser's attendees via an email newsletter. All such actions implicate IP rights, and this course examines how. We will review applicable caselaw and statutes, and we will explore relevant practice skills, both for protecting one's own IP as well as for re-using the IP of others. 

As society struggles to balance competing public interests – on one hand, incentivizing innovators to innovate while, on the other hand, maximizing the benefits of those innovations for society – we explore issues that are sure to affect your careers and lives. 


International Law 
3 credits – Professor J. Shah
International legal norms and processes have increasing impact on the practice of domestic law and the interdependence of social and people’s movements globally.  This course examines the legal rules and institutions that influence international affairs, ultimately impacting vulnerable communities around the world, such as poor people, migrants, workers, and those living under occupation, in war zones, and under the immediate threats of climate change.  This course seeks to provide students with an understanding of the development, role, and enforcement of international law and provide a brief survey of particular areas of public international law, such as international human rights, humanitarian (laws of war), criminal (war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, and torture), environmental, and economic (trade, investment, and development) law, as well as the intersections among them. This course will also analyze the politics of international law, using critical frameworks such as Third World Approaches to International Law and critical race theory to locate international law in the history of the colonization and deconstruct how international law functions as a tool of Third World subordination (in the global order and within powerful nations). Students will be encouraged to prescribe ways the global order may be reconstructed to facilitate universal human dignity.


Labor Law 
3 credits – Professor C. Huq
This course primarily introduces students to the core provisions and principles of the National Labor Relations Act, which regulates the right of employees to organize a union, as well as collective bargaining between unions and employers in the private sector.  We also will explore other aspects of Labor Law including state labor relations laws, international laws related to organizing, and emerging trends in the field. Throughout the course, we will examine the history and values underlying the law, including the economic and political interests that have influenced its development. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, a short writing assignment, and a take-home final exam.


Law Review Editing
1 credit - Professor L. Davis
(Faculty Permission Required)
A CUNY Law Review Editor who is leading an editing session or, as determined by a Faculty Advisor, substantially editing a writing for publication with the CUNY Law Review in either its print or digital format, is eligible to receive one credit.  One of the Faculty Advisors will review and provide feedback on the work of enrolled students a minimum of three times during the semester and provide a final evaluation of their work at the end of the semester.  This course is offered Credit/No Credit.

Prerequisite: Enrolled students must be third-year students in good standing and have
completed two semesters on the Law Review staff.  


Mastery and Application of Core Doctrine/Applied Legal Analysis 
5 credits – Professor A. Robbins
This course is an intensive bar exam preparation program designed for the self-motivated student. This course will cover some of the most frequently tested doctrine on the Uniform Bar Exam (UBE). Subjects covered may include contracts and UCC sales, criminal procedure, real property, secured transactions, and torts.  This course will have a heavy skills focus - working through skills for completing each component of the UBE – The Multistate Essay Exam (MEE), the Multistate Bar Exam (MBE), and the Multistate Performance Test (MPT). This course will require significant work outside of class time including synthesizing doctrinal material, writing and rewriting several essays and MPTs, and doing sets of multiple choice questions, along with an MBE process tracker and learning journals. While the course focuses primarily on the UBE, students preparing for another state bar exam will benefit, as much of the material and skills learned are transferable to other bar exams.

This course will meet once per week for a three-hour in-person skills workshop. Doctrinal lectures will be done online, outside of class time.
You must register for both Core Doctrine and Applied Legal Analysis separately. They are two courses that are co-requisites. In the fall semester, this course is designed for Pro Bono Scholars. Other students may only enroll in the course with permission of the Academic Dean’s Office.


Moot Court   
2 credits - TBD
(Faculty Permission Required)
This two-credit course features structured assistance to students who wish to improve their advocacy skills through participation in a moot court competition. The course requirements include the completion of an appellate brief and oral argument of professional quality prepared for an external competition or the equivalent thereof. While students will meet regularly as a group and individually with the instructor, each student is expected to work independently toward completion of the course requirements, including participation in oral argument practices. Before registering for a competition and for credit, students must have successfully completed the CUNY Moot Court training program and competition to earn membership in Moot Court. Students must obtain permission from the Moot Court faculty advisor before enrolling in this course. This course is graded Credit/No Credit.


New York Practice
4 credits – Professor L. Gentile
Civil Procedure in the Service of Human Needs. Litigation in the New York State court system is complicated, challenging, and sometimes frustrating. Success requires facility with New York State’s code of civil procedure known as the Civil Practice Law and Rules (CPLR). This course provides a broad knowledge and understanding of the Laws and Rules of the CPLR and provides practical skills in the strategic use of procedure to achieve victory in court.  You will learn how to use those rules strategically to enhance your position in litigation and how to fend off your adversary’s procedural aggressiveness.

The sequence of this course approximates the path of a civil case, providing the law a litigator needs to make strategic litigation decisions, including determining which court to bring suit, obtaining jurisdiction, making proper service, engaging in motion practice, obtaining discovery, resolving the litigation, taking appeal, and enforcing judgments.

You will learn how to obtain jurisdiction over the parties to the action and to commence the action in the proper venue, how to properly serve the defendant, and how to obtain a default judgment. You will learn how to advance your litigation strategy in motion practice, how to bring in new parties to the action through doctrines of joinder, impleader, interpleader, intervention, subrogation, contribution and indemnification; how to make your case by obtaining evidence through disclosure; how to timely file your action within the requirements of Notice of Claim and Statutes of Limitation, and will learn whether any tolls of the Statutes of Limitations apply. You will learn how to obtain relief before you start the action through provisional remedies, including injunctions, seizure and lis pendens.  You will learn how to enter judgment, how to vacate judgments and defaults, what to do after you win by use of enforcement of judgment procedures, how to timely and properly file a notice of appeal, how to bring on actions that challenge unlawful government acts through the Article 78 Action Special Proceeding and other forms of Special Proceeding. You will learn the basics of class actions and arbitration.

Course requirements include quizzes, cumulative tests, research and writing a state court motion, arguing that motion, and visiting a New York State Supreme Court motion calendar in Manhattan (one weekday morning) to observe motion argument. This is an elective that is highly recommended as preparation for those who will engage in civil litigation.

Professional Responsibility (A) Day
2 credits – Professor F. Siegel
This class will explore the requirements and the limitations of the ethical practice of law. While not an MPRE course, it will provide an overview of the New York Rules of Professional Conduct and the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct, and will emphasize concepts of professionalism, professional judgment, and some of the tensions inherent in social justice lawyering.  The goal of the course is to allow students to discuss the ethical complexities that exist in practice, especially when representing clients who may be marginalized by our society or when engaging in social change litigation.  Students will be evaluated based on an in-class midterm examination, a take-home final examination and class participation.


Professional Responsibility (B) Day
2 credits – Professor N. Chernoff
This class will explore the requirements and the limitations of the ethical practice of law. It will involve in-depth study of selected New York Rules of Professional Conduct and will consider some of the tensions inherent in social justice lawyering. The goal of the course is to allow students to discuss the ethical complexities that exist in practice, especially when representing clients who may be marginalized by our society or when engaging in social change litigation. Students will be required to conduct research, prepare presentations, engage in in-role exercises, write weekly reflections on the reading, and participate in class discussions.


Professional Responsibility (Evening)
2 credits – Professor L. Kamdang
This class will equip you to recognize, research, and resolve ethical issues in public interest law practice.  (Although this class will provide you with an overview of many of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct, the class is not designed to prepare you for the MPRE.)  The class will also provide opportunities to practice professional skills that you will likely use in your legal jobs, including professional presentations, research, writing an outline, writing a legal memo, and both facilitating and being a prepared participant in discussions.  As a result, the class requires students to engage in prepared participation in every class and conduct independent research. Specifically, students will be required to (1) prepare and present a rule analysis; (2) research, analyze, and prepare outlines on ethical problems; (3) lead a class discussion on an aspect of professional conduct; (4) actively participate in class discussions; and (5) write a final paper.


Representing Individuals with Mental Disabilities
2-3 credits – Professor S. Yakren
This course will examine current civil issues impacting the rights of individuals with mental disabilities (particularly psychosocial disabilities, such as schizophrenia and depression).  Issues covered will include: involuntary civil commitment law, the right to obtain and refuse treatment within institutions, the right to receive care in the community, and the right to be free of discrimination.  The course will also cover the ethical and practical issues that arise when working with individuals with mental disabilities.  Students will participate in field observations and meet practicing attorneys.

*Students have the option to register for two or three credits.  The three-credit option entails fulfilling the requirements of the two-hour weekly seminar, plus either (1) writing an additional 10 pages for the final paper (i.e., for a total of 25 pages instead of 15 pages); or (2) participating in a placement approved by the instructor at an outside organization.  However, placement opportunities are limited and may not accommodate all student demand.

Real Estate Transactions    
3 credits – Professor A. White
(Pre-requisite: successful completion of Property)*
The course will cover the principal elements in real estate transactions, including (1) real estate brokerage agreements; (2) purchase and sale contracts; (3) title and title insurance; (4) buyers’ and sellers’ remedies; (5) mortgages and foreclosure; (6) condominiums and co-ops; and (7) landlord-tenant issues.  The course has two primary objectives: to teach the legal rules that are tested on the bar exam and to introduce students to the drafting and lawyering issues they will encounter in real estate practice. Grading will be based on several short writing assignments including a drafting assignment, and a final exam with multiple-choice, essay and drafting components.


Teaching Assistant
1, 2, or 3 credits
(Faculty Permission Required)
A student may TA for any required course, except Clinics or Concentrations. No student may enroll in more than 3 credits of TA, except students who are TAs for both semesters for LME I and LME II who may earn up to 2 credits for LME I TA and up to 2 credits for LME II TA. All TAs must meet at least one hour per week with the course teacher. All TAs must have at least one contact hour per credit per week with students. To earn credit, each TA must submit at least one written work product. Examples of such work product include a journal, teaching observations, lesson plans, periodic submissions, and an independent research paper. TA’s do not take part in grading students. In any course that utilizes TA’s, grading remains the responsibility of the course teacher. TAs may not grade student work product, nor may the teacher substantially rely on a TAs feedback in grading. Regarding grading in any course which utilizes TAs, in compliance with our policy requiring at least two graded evaluative devices in each course and encouraging faculty feedback (either individual feedback or group feedback) on all evaluative devices, in addition to any feedback given by TAs, the course teacher must grade and give feedback on at least one evaluation device other than the written work product.


TIL: Constitutional Torts
2 credits – Honorable J. Francis
A demonstrator is arrested without probable cause; a prison inmate is beaten by a guard; a public employee is terminated for complaining about race discrimination: what redress is available to someone whose constitutional rights are violated?  This course will explore substantive and procedural issues in the litigation of constitutional torts under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and under the rubric of Bivens v. Six Unknown Federal Narcotics Agents.  Topics will include:

  • The definition of state or governmental action
  •  Liability of individuals and governmental entities
  • Incorporation of state tort principles
  • State of mind requirements
  • Immunity defenses
  • Exhaustion requirements and abstention doctrines
  • Enforcement of statutory and regulatory rights
  • Available remedies 

These and other issues will be examined in the context of cases involving due process, equal protection, free speech, search and seizure, and cruel and unusual punishment.


TIL: Doctrinal approaches to Discrimanation based on Race, Ethnicity, National Origin, and Gender Identities
3 credits – Honorable J. Rivera & Honorable J. Ellis
This course explores how legal doctrine has been informed by social constructs of personal and community defining identities, how the doctrine has shaped the rule of law, and whether law reform may properly be viewed through the prism of historical discrimination and bias.  The first segment of the course will trace the history of our legal institutions as it relates to racially disparate outcomes in our justice system.  We will consider the application of race-based paradigms and racialized legal constructs to other forms of self and community identification.  The second segment of the course will look closely at discrete subject areas to determine whether the law as interpreted and applied results in disparate outcomes depending on identity.  Students will consider such areas as criminal justice, fair employment legislation and enforcement, school desegregation and equity, fair housing, immigration policy and reform.  The course relies on existing texts and supplemental materials assigned by the Professors. Students will be graded on a final paper, class participation, and in-class presentations.

TIL: Election Law  
3 credits – Professor M. Mate
This course covers the law of elections and the political process. Topics covered include voting rights, political representation (including redistricting), ballot access and regulation of political parties, and campaign finance reform. The course will also explore the political, theoretical, and historical context of election law, topics related to minority rights and exclusion, the policy implications of key decisions for the functioning of democracy, and potential avenues of reform.


TIL: Electronic Discovery  
2 credits – Honorable J. Francis
If justice is a quest for the truth, it is imperative that lawyers be able to deal with information in a digital world.  Records that were once stored in paper files are now maintained electronically.  Communications previously made through written memoranda are now sent by email.  Evidence of a narcotics transaction is contained in text messages on a cell phone.  A wife seeks proof of her husband’s infidelity in his social media account.  Such changing technology has given rise to a field of jurisprudence known as Electronic Discovery.  In this course we will address such issues as:

  • How is digital different?  Do our legal rules need to evolve to adapt to changing technology?
  • Who owns electronic information? For example, does the employer or the employee possess the information on the email account the employee uses at work?
  • When and how must electronic information be preserved for litigation?  What sanctions are appropriate when it is not?
  • How do parties in litigation search through masses of digital data to locate relevant information?  What legal principles apply to this search?
  • What are the privacy implications of seeking electronic information in litigation?
  • How can the potentially enormous costs of e-discovery be contained?

We will examine these and other related subjects in light of the 2015 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the relevant case law, and the writings of experts in the field.  Students are not expected to have technical expertise. 


TIL: Special Education Law
2 credits – Professors N. Francullo & Professor J. Frankola
This course will provide students with an introduction to the law of special education with a focus on New York State. The goal of this course is to become familiar with the federal laws governing public schools: Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and New York statutes and regulations governing special education law.  In addition, students will learn about the disabilities that impact a child's ability to learn in the classroom and the types of services and remediation that are used to create an appropriate educational setting/program to help children fill in their learning gaps in order for them to catch up with their peers.  Knowing the law is not enough.  Attorneys need to interpret psychological, medical, educational and behavioral evaluations.  Interdisciplinary collaboration is necessary to properly advocate for students and will be discussed in this course.  We will discuss policy and also address educational inequality, as poverty is not just about a lack of money.  A student's learning can be negatively impacted by chronic illness, poor housing, and depression.  Finally, the course will explore key issues in special education law as set forth in United States Supreme Court decisions, and how these decisions have impacted the practice and application of the law in schools today.


TIL: Social Entrepreneurship and Law
2 credits – Professor D. Khosla
Economic dependency and long term reliance on State and/or Charitable sector for meeting basic human needs is a curse. The public sector annually spends about 4 trillion dollars or about 22 percent of federal budget on “poverty relief” programs. The charitable sector uses a high percentage of its revenues from the trillion dollars endowment to meet the survival needs of those stuck in the vicious cycle of poverty and dependency.  Since President Johnson’s “war on poverty”, the poverty rates have barely changed and the gap between the rich and poor has widened. With rare exceptions, these patch work arrangements fail to enhance economic and social liberation. Most likely they have a corrosive impact on individual initiative and might even be devastating to the aspirations of human dignity.

In this seminar we will learn about social mission driven market oriented legal structures such as Beneficial Corporations; L3C corporations; Social Purpose Corporations where the “shareholder primacy “is substituted with the goal of positive impact on society, workers, community, and environment along with profit as a legally defined goal. In addition, we will study micro financing; program related investing and the recent law that allows charitable foundations that control over 1200 billion in assets to invest in these entities; impact investing that can be successfully utilized by social justice oriented lawyers/ entrepreneurs committed to the theology of economic and social liberation.  We will also explore the role of social innovation in enhancing market outcomes that serve the needs of the underserved and marginalized. We will draw from case studies of innovative projects created by students at the Social Entrepreneurship Lab at Stanford. These projects include fighting AIDS in Africa, promoting literacy in Mexico, micro financing in Palestinian Territories, and confronting gender inequality using social venture capital to empower women in Afghanistan. We will also draw from case studies from the American scene.

This seminar is a work in progress and participants will have the opportunity to shape its content and scope. The only commitment I can make at this stage is that serious conversations in this seminar will empower us with tools to enhance economic and social liberation.  I have also begun exploring with Camille Massey, the possibility of creating a Social Entrepreneurship Lab at CUNY Law in partnership with Sorensen Center and raising start-up capital for well thought out and worthy projects. We will also study the criteria used by Gates Foundation, World Bank, Russell Family Foundation and Jeffrey Skoll Foundation, which have started funding social entrepreneurship projects recently, and explore potential partnerships.

Requirements: Commitment and imagination to be a creator and make American economy work to break the cycle of poverty and dependency, one step at a time. No exam. 2 pages of thoughtful reaction memos on the readings on weekly basis. Group or individual project presentation. A ten page submission on the project of your choice.

Please feel free to email me any queries you might have.


UCC Survey
3 credits - Professor D. Zalesne
This survey course covers two Articles of the Uniform Commercial Code: Article 2 (the sale of goods) and Article 9 (secured transactions).  It is taught from the perspective of lawyers who will be representing consumers and small businesses. This elective is highly recommended as preparation for the bar exam.

UCC Survey
3 credits – Professor P. Edwards
This course covers the commercial sale of goods, including sales with negotiable instruments: the law of commercial paper and banking and of secured debt from the perspective of lawyers who will be representing consumers, small businesses and charitable corporations. The course will focus primarily on the Uniform Commercial Code. This is an elective that is highly recommended as preparation for the bar exam.

Voting Rights  
3 credits – Professor F. Deale
This course will focus on the rights of individuals and groups to participate in the electoral political process consistent with the Voting Rights Act, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, and state law as applicable.  Areas covered will include voter identification, felony disenfranchisement, rules against transient voters, as well as structural features of the political process such as vote dilution mechanisms, at-large elections, racial redistricting, political gerrymandering, the role of money in politics, and alternative democratic structures.  Students will be evaluated by midterm and final writing assignments.


Wills, Trusts & Estates
3 credits – Professor R. Storrow
(Pre-requisite: successful completion of Property)
This course covers the law regulating the inheritance of property through intestacy, testamentary succession (including testamentary trusts) and will substitutes and also covers inter vivos trusts and the obligations of fiduciaries.  Examples, problems, and discussion of the law of different jurisdictions will challenge students to use statutory provisions and case law to develop problem-solving skills and will also introduce them to the special ethical issues involved in this area of practice. As the greatest emphasis in the course is on the mastery of the relevant legal doctrine and an understanding of the underlying public policies, this is an elective that is highly recommended as one prepares to take the bar exam in any jurisdiction.


Wills, Trusts & Estates
2-3 credits – Professor S. Deo (Principal Law Clerk to Judge, Surrogate’s Court)
(Pre-requisite: successful completion of Property)
This survey course covers the key concepts and law regulating the ways that property may be passed upon death or otherwise transferred as part of an estate plan, including by will, trust, testamentary substitute, operation of law, or via intestacy. The course provides students with a foundational understanding of the lexicon and legal doctrine relevant to estates and inheritance, in particular as preparation for the Bar Examination. With a focus on the New York Estates, Powers and Trusts Law and the Surrogate’s Court Procedure Act, this course will also expose students to the basics of Surrogate’s Court practice, explore current and developing issues related to estate administration and definitions of family as relates to the right to inherit, and examine the implications and impact of this area of law on the communities that students may serve as lawyers. Students may take this course for either 2 credits (just the core class) or 3 credits (the core class plus additional assignments to satisfy the added credit).