Selected Bibliography on Legal Writing Pedagogy

These articles are available in the faculty lounge.

List of Topics

About Persuasion

Thomas C. Berg, Julie A. Oseid, & Joseph A. Orrino, The Power of Rigor: James Madison as a Persuasive Writer, 8 J. ALWD 37 (2011).

Beverly J. Blair, Ethical Considerations in Advocacy: What First-Year Legal Writing Students Need to Know, 4 Legal Writing 109 (1998).

Kenneth D. Chestek, Judging by the Numbers: An Empirical Study of the Power of Story, 7 J. ALWD 1 (2010).

Bruce Ching, Argument, Analogy, and Audience: Using Persuasive Comparisons While Avoiding Unintended Effects, 7 J. ALWD 311 (2010).

Mark DeForrest, Introducing Persuasive Legal Argument Via The Letter from a Birmingham City Jail, 15 Legal Writing 109(2009).

Sarah B. Duncan, Pursuing Quality: Writing a Helpful Brief, 30 St. Mary's L.J. 1093 (1999).

Sean Flammer, Persuading Judges: An Empirical Analysis of Writing Style, Persuasion, and the Use of Plain English, 16 Legal Writing 183 (2010).

Bryan A. Garner, The Deep Issue: A New Approach to Framing Legal Questions, 5 Scribes J. Legal Writing 1(1994-95).

Bryan A. Garner, Judges on Briefing: A National Survey, 8 Scribes J. Legal Writing 1 (2001-02).

Bryan A. Garner, Interviews with United States Supreme Court Justices, 13 Scribes J. Legal Writing 1 (2010).

Michael J. Higdon, Oral Argument and Impression Management: Harnessing the Power of Nonverbal Persuasion for a Judicial Audience, 57 U. Kan. L. Rev. 631 (2009).

Ellie Margolis, Teaching Students to Make Effective Policy Arguments in Appellate Briefs, 9 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 73 (2001).

Diana Pratt, Representing Non-Mainstream Clients to Mainstream Judges: A Challenge of Persuasion, 4 Legal Writing 79 (1998).

Kristin K. Robbins, The Inside Scoop: What Federal Judges Really Think About the Way Lawyers Write, 8 Legal Writing 257 (2002).

Julie M. Spanbauer, Teaching First-Semester Students that Objective Analysis Persuades, 5 Legal Writing 167 (1999).

Kathryn Stanchi, Playing with Fire: The Science of Confronting Adverse Material in Legal Advocacy, 60 Rutgers L. Rev. 381(2008)

Kathryn Stanchi, The Power of Priming in Legal Advocacy: Using the Science of First Impressions to Persuade the Reader, 89 Or. L. Rev. 305 (2010).

Kathy Stanchi, Teaching Students to Present Law Persuasively Using Techniques from Psychology, 19 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 142 (2011).

Stephanie A. Vaughan, Persuasion is an Art… But it is Also an Invaluable Tool in Advocacy, 61 Baylor L. Rev. 635 (2009).

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Approaches to Revising and Editing

Stephen V. Armstrong & Timothy P. Terrell, Just One Damned Thing After Another: The Challenge of Making Legal Writing "Spatial", 7 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 119 (1999).

Stephen V. Armstrong & Timothy P. Terrell, Resisting the Devil's Voice: Write Short, Simple Sentences, 3 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 46 (1995).

Edna Zwick Boris, Sentence Sense: "It" Problems, 4 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 96 (1996).

Edna Zwick Boris, Sentence Sense: "We", "Our", and "Us" Problems, 5 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 125 (1997).

Edna Zwick Boris, Sentence Structure and Sentence Sense: "And" Problems, 3 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 85 (1995).

Gregory G. Colomb & Joseph M. Williams, Shaping Stories: Managing The Appearance of Responsibility, 6 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 16 (1997).

Gregory G. Colomb & Joseph M. Williams, Well Begun is Half Done: The First Principle of Coherent Prose, 8 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 129 (2000).

Anne Enquist, Substantive Editing Versus Technical Editing: How Law Review Editors Do Their Job, 30 Stetson Law Rev. 452 (2000).

Anne Enquist, Should I Teach My Students Not to Write in Passive Voice?, 12 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 35 (2003).

Anne Enquist, The Semicolon's Undeserved Mystique, 12 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 105 (2004).

Anne Enquist, To Quote or Not to Quote, 14 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 16 (2005).

Martha Faulk, Much Ado About That... Or is it Which?, 6 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 112 (1998).

Martha Faulk, Never Use a Preposition to End a Sentence With, 8 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 24 (1999).

Tern LeClercq, Doctrine of the Last Antecedent: The Mystifying Morass of Ambiguous Modifiers, 2 Legal Writing 81 (1996).

Patricia Grande Montana, Better Revision: Encouraging Student Writers to See Through the Eyes of the Reader, 14 Legal Writing 291 (2008).

Terry Jean Seligmann, Why is a Legal Memorandum Like an Onion? – A Student's Guide to Reviewing and Editing, 56 Mercer L. Rev. 729 (2005).

Louis J. Sirico, Jr., Teaching Paragraphs, 8 Perspect.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 13 (1999).

Jacqueline H. Slotkin, Comma Abuse: A Comma Can Cause Trouble By Its Absence, Its Presence, Its Incorrect Placement, 4 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 16 (1995).

James F. Stratman, Teaching Lawyers to Revise for the Real World: A Role for Reader Protocols, 1 Legal Writing 35 (1991).

Joseph M. Williams & Gregory G. Colomb, Telling Clear Stories: A Principle of Revision That Demands A Good Character, 5 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 14 (1996).

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Linda L. Berger, Linda H. Edwards & Terrill Pollman, The Past, Presence, and Future of Legal Writing Scholarship: Rhetoric, Voice, and Community, 16 Legal Writing 521 (2010).

Bibliography of Books, Articles, and Periodicals on Legal Writing Programs and Instruction <pdf>, May 15, 2006.

Mary Dunnewold, Beth Honetschlager & Brenda Tofte, Judicial Clerkships: A Bibliography, 8 J. ALWD 239 (2011).

Kristin B. Gerdy, Continuing Development: A Snapshot of Legal Research and Writing Programs Through the Lens of the 2002 LWI and ALWD Survey, 9 Legal Writing 227 (2003).

Almas Khan, A Compendium of Legal Writing Sources, 50 Washburn L.J. 395 (2011).

Terrill Pollman and Linda H. Edwards, Scholarship by Legal Writing Professors: New Voices in the Legal Academy, 11 Legal Writing 3 (2005).

Michael R. Smith, Rhetoric Theory and Legal Writing: An Annotated Bibliography, 3 J. ALWD 129 (2006).

Kathryn Stanchi, Persuasion: An Annotated Bibliography, 6 J. ALWD 75 (2009).

Carrie W. Teitcher, Legal Writing Beyond Memos and Briefs: An Annotated Bibliography, 5 J. ALWD 133 (2008).

Ruth C. Vance, Judicial Opinion Writing: An Annotated Bibliography, 17 Legal Writing 197 (2011).

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Cultural Competence

Lorraine Bannai & Anne Enquist, (Un)examined Assumptions and (Un)intended Messages: Teaching Students to Recognize Bias in Legal Analysis and Language, 27 Seattle U. L. Rev. 1 (2003).

Charles R. Calleros, In the Spirit of Regina Austin's Contextual Analysis: Exploring Racial Context in Legal Method, Writing Assignments and Scholarship, 34 J. Marshall L. Rev. 281 (2000).

Ian Gallacher, Thinking Like Nonlawyers: Why Empathy is a Core Lawyering Skill and Why Legal Education Should Change to Reflect its Importance, 8 J. ALWD 109 (2011).

Jean Koh Peters & Susan Bryant, The Five Habits: Building Cross-Cultural Competence in Lawyers, 8 Clin. L. Rev. 33 (2001).

Kathryn M. Stanchi, Feminist Legal Writing, 39 San Diego L. Rev. 387 (2002).

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English as a Second Language

Nigel Bruce, Dovetailing Language and Content: Teaching Balanced Argument in Legal Problem Answer Writing in English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002).

C.N. Candlin, V.K. Bhatia & C.H. Jensen, Developing Legal Writing Materials for English Second Language Learners: Problems and Perspectives in English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002).

Charles F. Coleman, Our Students Write with Accents—Oral Paradigms for ESD Students, College Composition and Communication 48.4 (December 1997).

C. B. Feak, S.M Reinhard & A. Sinsheimer, A Preliminary Analysis of Law Review Notes in English for Specific Purposes 19 (2000).

Ann M. Johns, ESL Students and WAC Programs: Varied Populations and Diverse Needs, in WAC for the New Millennium (Susan H. McLeod, Erin Miraglia, Margot Soven & Christopher Thaiss, eds.) (2001).

Mark E. Wojcik, Introduction to Legal English: An Introduction to Legal Terminology, Reasoning, and Writing in Plain English (3d ed., International Law Institute 2009).

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Learning Theory/ Learning Strategies

Erika Abner & Shelley Kierstead, A Preliminary Exploration of the Elements of Expert Performance in Legal Writing, 16 Legal Writing 363 (2010).

Robin A. Boyle, Employing Active-Learning Techniques and Metacognition in Law School: Shifting Energy From Professor to Student, 81 U. Det. Mercy L. Rev. 1 (2003).

Robin A. Boyle & Rita Dunn, Teaching Law Students Through Individual Learning Styles, 62 Alb. L. Rev. 213 (1998).

Leah M. Christensen, Enhancing Law School Success: A Study of Goal Orientations, Academic Achievement and the Declining Self-Efficacy of Our Law Students, 33 Law & Psychol. Rev. 57 (2009).

Rita Dunn, Jeffrey S. Beaudry & Angela Klavas, Survey of Research on Learning Styles, 46(6) Educ. Leadership (1989).

Dorothy H. Evensen, To Group or Not to Group: Students' Perceptions of Collaborative Learning Activities in Law School, 28 S. Ill. U. L.J. 343 (2004).

Kristin B. Gerdy, Teacher, Coach, Cheerleader, and Judge: Promoting Learning Through Learner-Centered Assessment, 94 Law Libr. J. 59 (2002).

Robert E. Haskell, Transfer of Learning: Cognition, Instruction and Reasoning (Academic Press 2001).

M. H. Sam Jacobson, How Law Students Absorb Information: Determining Modality in Learning Style, 8 Legal Writing 175 (2002).

M. H. Sam Jacobson, Learning Styles and Lawyering: Using Learning Theory to Organize Thinking and Writing, 2 J. ALWD 27 (2004).

Tonya Kowalski, True North: Navigating for the Transfer of Learning in Legal Education, 34 Seattle U. L. Rev. 51 (2010).

Sarah Leberman, Lex MacDonald, and Stephanie Doyle, The Transfer of Learning: Participants' Perspectives of Adult Education and Training (Gower Publishing Co. 2006).

Laurel Currie Oates, I Know That I Taught Them How to Do That, 7 Legal Writing 1 (2001).

David N. Perkins & Gavriel Salomon, Teaching for Transfer, 46 Educational Leadership 22 (1988).

Craig T. Smith, Teaching Students How to Learn in Your Course: The "Learning-Centered" Course Manual, 12 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 1 (2003).

Michael R. Smith, Linguistic Hooks: Overcoming Adverse Cognitive Stock Structures in Statutory Interpretation, 8 J. ALWD 1 (2011).

Christine M. Venter, Analyze This: Using Taxonomies to "Scaffold" Students' Legal Thinking and Writing Skills, 57 Mercer L. Rev. 621 (2006).

Deborah Zalesne & David Nadvorney, Why Don't They Get It?: Academic Intelligence and the Under-Prepared Students as "Other", 61 J. Legal Educ. 264 (2011).

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Models of Instruction: A Focus on Process

Joanne Durako et al., From Product to Process: Evolution of a Legal Writing Program, 58 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 719 (1997).

Miriam E. Felsenburg & Laura P. Graham, Beginning Legal Writers in Their Own Words: Why the First Weeks of Legal Writing Are So Tough and What We Can Do About It, 16 Legal Writing 223 (2010).

Miriam E. Felsenburg & Laura P. Graham, A Better Beginning: Why and How to Help Novice Legal Writers Build a Solid Foundation by Shifting Their Focus From Product to Process, 24 Regent U. L. Rev. 83 (2011-12).

Jessie C. Grearson, Teaching the Transitions, 4 Legal Writing 57 (1998).

Michael Hunter Schwartz, Teaching Law by Design: How Theory and Instructional Design Can Inform and Reform Law Teaching, 38 San Diego L. Rev. 347 (2001).

Nancy Soonpaa, Using Composition Theory and Scholarship to Teach Legal Writing More Effectively, 3 Legal Writing 81 (1997).

Robin S. Wellford-Slocum, The Law School Student-Faculty Conference: Towards a Transformative Learning Experience, 45 S. Tex. L. Rev. 255 (2004).

Joseph M. Williams, On the Maturing of Legal Writers: Two Models of Growth and Development, 1 Legal Writing 1 (1991).

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On Designing Assignments

Lorraine Bannai, Anne Enquist, Judith Maier & Susan McClellan, Sailing Through Designing Memo Assignments, 5 Legal Writing 193 (1999).

Jason K. Cohen, Attorneys at the Podium: A Plain-Language Approach to Using the Rhetorical Situation in Public Speaking Outside the Courtroom, 8 J. ALWD 7 (2011).

Pamela Edwards & Sheilah Vance, Teaching Social Justice Through Legal Writing, 7 Legal Writing 63 (2001).

Gail Anne Kintzer, Maureen Straub Kordesh & C. Ann Sheehan, Rule Based Legal Writing Problems: A Pedagogical Approach, 3 Legal Writing 143 (1997).

Nantiya Ruan, Experiential Learning in the First-Year Curriculum: The Public-Interest Partnership, 8 J. ALWD 191 (2011).

Helene Shapo & Mary S. Lawrence, Designing the First Writing Assignment, 5 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 94 (1997).

Grace Tonner & Diana Pratt, Selecting and Designing Effective Legal Writing Problems, 3 Legal Writing 163 (1997).

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Peer Editing and Self-Critique

Mary Beth Beazley, The Self-Graded Draft: Teaching Students to Revise Using Guided Self-Critique, 3 Legal Writing 175 (1997).

Susan Bryant, Collaboration in Law Practice: A Satisfying and Productive Process for a Diverse Profession, 17 Vermont L. Rev. 459 (1993).

Kirsten K. Davis, Designing and Using Peer Review in a First-Year Legal Research and Writing Course, 9 Legal Writing 1 (2003).

Jo Anne Durako, Peer Editing: It's Worth The Effort, 7 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 73 (1999).

The Second Draft: Bulletin of the Legal Writing Institute <pdf>, Collaboration and Cooperation, (June 2001)

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Programs in Perspective

Randall Abate, The Third Time is the Charm: The Structure and Benefits of a Three-Semester Legal Writing Program, 16 Second Draft: Bull. Legal Writing Inst. 7 (May 2002).

Eric B. Easton, et al., Sourcebook on Legal Writing Programs (ALA 2d ed. 2006).

Jessie Grearson & Anne Enquist, A History of Writing Advisors at Law Schools: Looking at Our Past, Looking at Our Future, 5 Legal Writing 55 (1999).

Tonya Kowalski, Toward a Pedagogy for Teaching Legal Writing in Law School Clinics, 17 Clinical L. Rev. 285 (2010).

Teri A. McMurtry-Chubb, Writing at the Master's Table: Reflections on Theft, Criminality, and Otherness in the Legal Writing Profession, 2 Drexel L. Rev. 41 (2009).

Suzanne Rowe.From Polaroid Snapshot to 3-D Movie: Updating the Annual Survey of Legal Writing Programs, 16 Legal Writing 565 (2010).

Suzanne Rowe, Plenary IV: Program Design in Symposium, The Legal Writing Institute: Celebrating 25 Years of Teaching and Scholarship,61 Mercer L. Rev. 826 (2010).

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Responding to Students' Work

Aida M. Alaka, The Phenomenology of Error in Legal Writing, 28 Quinnipiac L. Rev. 1 (2009).

Linda L. Berger, A Reflective Rhetorical Model: The Legal Writing Teacher as Reader and Writer, 6 Legal Writing 57 (2000).

Mary Dunnewold, "Feed-Forward" Tutorials, Not "Feedback" Reviews," 6 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 105 (1998).

Peter Elbow & Mary Deane Sorcinelli, Writing to Learn: Strategies for Assigning and Responding to Writing Across the Disciplines (Jossey-Bass 1997).

Anne Enquist, Critiquing Law Students' Writing: What the Students Say Is Effective, 2 Legal Writing 145 (1996).

Anne Enquist, Critiquing and Evaluating Law Students' Writing: Advice From Thirty-Five Experts, 22 Seattle U. L. Rev. 1119 (1999).

Anne Enquist, Defeating the Writer's Archenemy, 13 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 145 (2005).

Anne Enquist, Talking to Students About the Differences Between Undergraduate Writing and Legal Writing, 13 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 104 (2005).

Anne Enquist, You've Sent Mail: Ten Tips to Take with You to Practice, 15 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 127 (2007).

Anne Enquist, Unlocking the Secrets of Highly Successful Legal Writing Students, 82 St. John's L. Rev. 609 (2008).

Anne Enquist, Multitasking and Legal Writing, 18 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 7 (2009).

Elizabeth Fajans & Mary M. Falk, Teaching Lawyers to Write: Linguistics and the Composition of Legal Documents: Border Crossings, 22 Legal Stud. F. 697 (1998).

Victor M. Goode, There is a Method(ology) to This Madness: A Review and Analysis of Feedback in the Clinical Process, 53 OkIa. L. Rev. 223 (2000).

Richard H. Haswell, Minimal Marking, 45 C. Eng. 600 (1983).

Steve J. Johansen, "What Were You Thinking?": Using Annotated Portfolios to Improve Student Assessment, 4 Legal Writing 123 (1998).

Mary Kate Kearney & Mary Beth Beazley, Teaching Students to "Think Like Lawyers": Integrating Socratic Method with the Writing Process, 64 Temple L. Rev. 885 (1991).

Sondra Perl, Unskilled Writers as Composers, Teachers and Writers Magazine, Fall 1979, pp. 12-17.

Susan E. Provenzano & Lesley S. Kagan, Teaching in Reverse: a Positive Approach to Analytical Errors in 1L Writing, 39 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 123 (2007).

Mary Bernard Ray, How Individual Differences Affect Organization and How Teachers Can Respond to These Differences, 5 Legal Writing 125 (1999).

Sheila Rodriguez, Using Feedback Theory to Help Novice Legal Writers Develop Expertise, 86 U. Det. Mercy L. Rev. 207 (2009).

Judith Rosenbaum, Using Read-Aloud Protocols as a Method of Instruction, 7 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 105 (1999).

M. Elizabeth Sargent Wallace, "Errors and Expectations": or, How Composition Scholarship Changed the Way I Ask For and Respond to Student Writing, ADE Bulletin 109 (Winter 1994), p. 23.

Joseph M. Williams, The Phenomenology of Error, College Composition and Communication, Vol. 32. No. 2, Language Studies and Composing (May, 1981), pp. 152-168.

Vivian Zamel, Responding to Student Writing, TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1, March 1985.

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Rhetoric and Narrative

Linda L. Berger, Applying New Rhetoric to Legal Discourse: The Ebb and Flow of Reader and Writer, Text and Context, 49 J. Legal Educ. 155 (1999).

Linda L. Berger, Of Metaphor, Metonymy, and Corporate Money: Rhetorical Choices in Supreme Court Decisions on Campaign Finance Regulation, 58 Mercer L. Rev. 949 (2007).

Linda L. Berger, How Embedded Knowledge Structures Affect Judicial Decision Making: An Analysis of Metaphor, Narrative, and Imagination in Child Custody Disputes, 18 S. Cal. Interdisc. L. J. 259 (2009).

Linda L. Berger, Studying and Teaching "Law as Rhetoric": A Place to Stand, 16 Legal Writing 3 (2010).

Linda L. Berger, The Lady, or the Tiger? A Field Guide to Metaphor and Narrative, 50 Washburn L.J. 275 (2011).

Beverly J. Blair, Ethical Considerations in Advocacy: What First-Year Legal Writing Students Need to Know, 4 Legal Writing 109 (1998).

Linda H. Edwards, Once Upon a Time in Law: Myth, Metaphor, and Authority, 77 Tenn. L. Rev. 883 (2010).

Elizabeth Fajans & Mary R. Falk, Untold Stories: Restoring Narrative to Pleading Practice, 15 Legal Writing 3 (2009).

Robert A. Ferguson, The Judicial Opinion as Literary Genre, 2 Yale J L. & Human. 201(1990).

Brian J. Foley & Ruth Anne Robbins, Fiction 101: A Primer for Lawyers On How To Use Fiction Writing Techniques To Write Persuasive Facts Sections, 32 Rutgers L.J. 459 (2001).

Carolyn Grose, Storytelling Across the Curriculum: From Margin to Center, from Clinic to the Classroom, 7 J. ALWD 37 (2010).

Steven J. Johansen, Was Colonel Sanders a Terrorist? An Essay on the Ethical Limits of Applied Legal Storytelling, 7 J. ALWD 63 (2010).

Derek H. Kiernan-Johnson, Telling Through Type: Typography and Narrative in Legal Briefs, 7 J. ALWD 87 (2010).

Ellie Margolis, Teaching Students to Make Effective Policy Arguments in Appellate Briefs, 9 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 73 (2001).

Julie A. Oseid, The Power of Metaphor: Thomas Jefferson's "Wall of Separation Between Church & State", 7 J. ALWD 123 (2010).

David Ray Papke & Kathleen H. McManus, Narrative and the Appellate Opinion, 23 Legal Studies Forum 449 (1999).

Terrill Pollman, Building a Tower of Babel or Building a Discipline? Talking About Legal Writing, 85 Marq. L. Rev. 887 (2002).

Terrill Pollman & Judith M. Stinson, IRLAFARC! Surveying the Language of Legal Writing, 56 Me. L. Rev. 239 (2004).

Diana Pratt, Representing Non-Mainstream Clients to Mainstream Judges: A Challenge of Persuasion, 4 Legal Writing 79 (1998).

Jessica E. Price, Imagining the Law-Trained Reader: The Faulty Description of the Audience in Legal Writing Textbooks, 16 Widener L.J. 983 (2007).

Bret Rappaport, Using the Elements of Rhythm, Flow, and Tone to Create a More Effective and Persuasive Acoustic Experience in Legal Writing, 16 Legal Writing 65 (2010).

J. Christopher Rideout, Penumbral Thinking Revisited: Metaphor in Legal Argumentation, 7 J. ALWD 155 (2010).

J. Christopher Rideout, Voice, Self, and Persona in Legal Writing, 15 Legal Writing 67 (2009).

Ruth Anne Robbins, An Introduction to Applied Storytelling, 14 Legal Writing 3 (2008).

Ruth Anne Robbins, Harry Potter, Ruby Slippers and Merlin: Telling the Client's Story Using the Characters and Paradigm of the Archetypal Hero's Journey, 29 Seattle L. Rev. 767 (2006).

Ruth Anne Robbins, Painting with Print: Incorporating Concepts of Typographic and Layout Design into the Text of Legal Writing Documents, 2 J. ALWD 108 (2004).

Jennifer Murphy Romig, The Legal Writer's Checklist Manifesto: Book Review, 8 J. ALWD 93 (2011).

Julie M. Spanbauer, Teaching First-Semester Students that Objective Analysis Persuades, 5 Legal Writing 167 (1999).

Amy Vorenberg, Essay: The Moral of the Story –The Power of Narrative to Inspire and Sustain Scholarship, 8 J. ALWD 257 (2011).

Patricia M. Wald, The Rhetoric of Results and the Results of Rhetoric: Judicial Writings, 62 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1371 (1995).

Helena Whalen-Bridge, The Lost Narrative: The Connection Between Legal Narrative and Legal Ethics, 7 J. ALWD 229 (2010).

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Teaching Reasoning, Analysis, and Case Synthesis

Daniel L. Barnett, Triage in the Trenches of the Legal Writing Course: The Theory and Methodology of Analytical Critique, 38 U. Tol. L. Rev. 651 (2007).

Mary Beth Beazley, Better Writing, Better Thinking: Using Legal Writing Pedagogy in the "Casebook" Classroom (Without Grading Papers), 10 Legal Writing 23 (2004).

Bruce Ching, Nonlegal Analogies in the LRW Classroom, 8 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 26 (1999).

Linda H. Edwards, The Convergence of Analogical and Dialectic Imaginations in Legal Discourse, 20 Legal Stud. F. 7 (1996).

Anne Enquist, Teaching Students to Make Explicit Factual Comparisons, 12 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 147 (2004).

Anne Enquist, That Old Friend, the Tree-Branching Diagram, 13 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 24 (2004).

Anne Enquist, Topic Sentences—Potentially Brilliant Moments of Synthesis, 14 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 139 (2006).

Judith D. Fischer, Got Issues? An Empirical Study About Framing Them, 6 J. ALWD 1(2009).

Jane Kent Gionfriddo, Thinking Like a Lawyer: The Heuristics of Case Synthesis, 40 Tex. Tech L. Rev. 1 (2007).

Stephanie Roberts Hartung & Shailini Jandial George, Promoting In-Depth Analysis: A Three-Part Approach to Teaching Analogical Reasoning to Novice Legal Writers, 39 Cumb. L. Rev. 685 (2009).

Dan Hunter, Teaching and Using Analogy in Law, 2 J. ALWD 151 (2004).

Lisa T. McElroy & Christine N. Coughlin, The Other Side of the Story: Using Graphic Organizers as Cognitive Learning Tools to Teach Students to Construct Effective Counter-Analysis, 39 U. Balt. L. Rev. 227 (2010).

Tracy McGaugh, The Synthesis Chart: Swiss Army Knife of Legal Writing, 9 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 80 (2001).

Michael D. Murray, Rule Synthesis and Explanatory Synthesis: A Socratic Dialogue Between IREAC and TREAT, 8 J. ALWD 217 (2011).

Angela Passalaqua, Using Visual Techniques to Teach Legal Analysis and Synthesis, 3 Legal Writing 203 (1997).

Thomas O. Patrick, Using Simplified Cases to Introduce Synthesis, 3 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 67 (1995).

Suzanne Rowe, The Brick: Teaching Legal Analysis Through the Case Method, 7 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 21 (1998).

Anita Schnee, Logical Reasoning "Obviously", 3 Legal Writing 105 (1997).

Clifford S. Zimmerman, Creative Ideas and Techniques for Teaching Rule Synthesis, 8 Persp.: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 68 (2000).

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Suzanne Ehrenberg, Legal Writing Unplugged: Evaluating the Role of Computer Technology in Legal Writing Pedagogy, 4 Legal Writing 1 (1998).

Kristin B. Gerdy, Jane H. Wise & Alison Craig, Expanding Our Classroom Walls: Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Technology, 2 Legal Writing 263 (2005).

Danielle Istl & Pamela Lysaght, Integrating Technology: Teaching Students to Communicate in Another Medium, 10 Legal Writing 163 (2004).

Louis J. Sirico, Jr., Readability Studies: How Technocentrism Can Compromise Research and Legal Determinations, 26 Quinnipiac Law Review 147 (2007).

David Thomson, Law School 2.0: Legal Education for a Digital Age (LexisNexis/Matthew Bender 2009).

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Writing to Learn

Judith A. Langer, Speaking of Knowing: Conceptions of Understanding in Academic Disciplines, in Writing, Teaching, and Learning in the Disciplines (Anne Herrington & Charles Moran, eds. 1992).

Nancy Levit, The Theory and the Practice – Reflective Writing Across the Curriculum, 15 Legal Writing 253 (2009).

Cristina Lockwood & Pamela Lysaght, Writing Across the Law SchoolCurriculum: Theoretical Justifications, Curricular Implications, 2 J.ALWD 73 (2004).

Pamela Lysaght, Writing Across the Law School Curriculum in Practice: Considerations for Casebook Faculty, 12 Legal Writing 191 (2006).

Andrea McArdle, Teaching Writing in Clinical, Lawyering, and Legal Writing Courses: Negotiating Professional and Personal Voice, 12 Clinical L. Rev. 501 (2006).

Andrea McArdle, Writing Across the Curriculum: Professional Communication and the Writing That Supports It, 15 Legal Writing 241(2009).

Laurel Currie Oates, Beyond Communication: Writing as a Means of Learning, 6 Legal Writing 1 (2000).

J.P. Ogilvy, The Use of Journals in Legal Education: A Tool for Reflection, 3 Clinical L. Rev. 55 (1996).

Carol McCrehan Parker, Writing Throughout the Curriculum: Why Law Schools Need It and How to Achieve It, 76 Neb. L. Rev. 561 (1997).

Carol McCrehan Parker, A Liberal Education in Law: Engaging the Legal Imagination Through Research and Writing Beyond the Curriculum, 1 J. ALWD 129 (2002).

Carol McCrehan Parker, Writing is Everybody's Business: Theoretical and Practical Justification for Teaching Writing Across the Law School Curriculum, 12 Legal Writing 175 (2006).

Carol McCrehan Parker, What Will I Do on Monday, and Why Aren't We Doing It Already?: Reflecting on the Value of Expressive Writing in the Law School Curriculum, 15 Legal Writing 279 (2009).

Carol McCrehan Parker, The Signature Pedagogy of Legal Writing, 16 Legal Writing 463 (2010)

Martha Townsend, Writing Across the Curriculum, in Encyclopedia of English Studies and Language Arts, Vol. II (1994).

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