What is Trauma?

When you experience or witness an event that is traumatic for you, you may feel intense fear, helplessness, terror, or horror or you may find yourself just feeling numb (not feeling anything). Sometimes, you may not realize that you have been traumatized. You may be in shock or unaware of the impact of the event.

During the days or months following the trauma, you may find yourself re experiencing the event in dreams, feelings, daydreams and/or other conscious thoughts or trying to avoid any setting that may remind you of the trauma. You may feel detached from those around you. You may have difficulty sleeping or find yourself sleeping much more than usual. You may have trouble concentrating keeping your mind on what you are doing. You may feel unusually fatigued, anxious, sad or depressed.

Some Useful Strategies for Dealing with Your Reactions

First, recognize that you have been exposed to a traumatic event and that it is bound to affect you in some way. Remember that there is no right or wrong way to think or feel about the traumatic event. Any reaction you have is valid. Be accepting of your own feelings and reactions as well as those of others. Different people may react in very different ways.

Talking to others about the event can be very helpful. Tell sympathetic family or friends about your experience. Don't feel over responsible: Try to understand what your limitations were at the time of the event. People tend to feel that they should have reacted differently or done something to prevent or to lessen the impact of the incident. Be aware that in traumatic situations, most people react in the best way that they can based on their ability and their awareness at that exact moment in time.

Sometimes the trauma has affected your friends and family, and they may not be able to help you or even listen to you. In fact, they may also need someone to talk to.

Counseling Can Be Helpful

Take advantage of individual and group counseling services available to you. Counseling can help you make sense of your experience to understand how the trauma has affected you and to understand your feelings and reactions to it.

What is depression?

It's normal to feel sad at times, but clinical depression is a serious disorder requiring treatment. You can't just "snap out of" clinical depression - it's an illness, not a sign of weakness. Depression is associated with reduced levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, impairing the body's ability to respond quickly to external situations. In other words, your brain cannot respond appropriately to information from the external world that unceasingly bombards the senses. Fortunately, antidepressant medication can restore chemical balance in the brain by raising the level of serotonin. Tackling the root of depression through medication and counseling is important for the well being of the whole person. In fact, depression not only causes emotional changes, but also affects behavior, physical health and appearance, academic performance, social activity and the ability to handle everyday situations. Women are twice as likely as men to suffer depression.

What causes depression?

Not all causes of depression are known, but scientists generally agree that certain biological and environmental factors increase the likelihood of depression. Studies have shown that individuals with depressed family members are more likely to develop the disorder. Biological factors include personality traits, chemical imbalances in the brain, and changing hormone levels. You are more likely to suffer depression if you are pessimistic, have poor coping skills, or have low self esteem.

Elements of your environment that may contribute to depression are difficult life events, such as divorce of your parents or death of a loved one, physical illness, and lack of support from friends and family. Although behavior patterns are usually a result of genetics and environment, they too can be considered causes of depression. Such behavior includes abusing alcohol or drugs and holding unrealistic expectations.

What are the symptoms of depression?

If you experience symptoms of depression for more than two weeks it's very important to seek help.


  • Sadness or pessimism
  • Feelings of hopelessness or worthlessness
  • Irritability, anger, worry, agitation, anxiety, guilt
  • Recurring thoughts of death or suicide


  • Loss of energy, persistent lethargy
  • Headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pains that don't respond to medical treatment


  • Changes in appetite and sleep patterns
  • Impaired ability to concentrate, remember, or make decisions
  • Inability to take pleasure in former interests; social withdrawal
  • Using alcohol or drugs to "feel better"
What is the treatment for depression?

The most common and effective means for treatment is a combination of psychotherapy and medication. A good therapist can help you modify behavioral and emotional patterns that contribute to your illness. Medication improves your ability to cope with life's problems and restores your sense of judgment. Some patients fear that using drugs will change their personality, but most people who take antidepressants find relief and "feel like themselves" again.

How can I help a friend who may be depressed?

Having support from friends and family is essential for individuals suffering depression. Remember that you aren't responsible for your friend's depression, but you can help alleviate the symptoms. Show you care and want to find help for your friend. However, be careful not to be overbearing and controlling - your most important role is as a listener. As you listen to your friend, be supportive - don't deny or minimize your friend's pain. Be honest that your friend's behavior worries you because it's not a trivial problem, but remind him or her that depression is a highly treatable disorder that affects many people. When discussing the subject, stay calm and withdraw if you start getting frustrated by your friend's denial or lack of change.

Signs that Someone May Be At Risk for Suicide

  • Talking directly or indirectly about suicide or wanting to die - Creation of a suicide plan
  • the more specific the plan, the more serious the threat - Suffering from serious depression
  • Experiencing changes in academic or job performance or behavior
  • Engaging in other actions that could potentially cause harm to self, including taking too many pills
  • Purposely injuring one's self (such as cutting or burning)
  • Taking unnecessary or life-threatening risks (e.g., driving recklessly)
  • Reporting a history of suicide attempts or gestures
  • Saying goodbye to friends or giving away prized possessions
  • Shifting from serious depression to sudden happiness - this might be a sign of deciding to "take care of problems" by committing suicide

If you believe a classmate is in danger of committing suicide:

  • Do not leave the classmate alone. Call 911 or, if you think you can do so safely, take the classmate to the nearest hospital emergency room. Your dean of students may be able to assist, and may have emergency contact information for the classmate.
  • If a classmate appears to be thinking about suicide, even if suicide is not an immediate danger, you can encourage the person to seek treatment. Someone who is suicidal or has severe depression may not have the energy or motivation to find help. If your friend or loved one doesn't want to consult a doctor or mental health

Signs and Symptoms of Substance Abuse

    Is my drinking / drug use
  • Interfering with my work according to my clients, associates, or support personnel?
  • Filling a need to face certain situations?
  • Often done alone?
  • Causing me to have memory loss?
  • Decreasing my ambition or efficiency?
  • Necessary before meetings or court appearances to calm my nerves, gain courage, or improve performance?
  • Increasing in quantity / frequency and something I believe I need to hide?
  • Causing me to miss closings, court appearances or other appointments?
  • Making me feel guilty, depressed and anxious?
  • Interfering with my personal relationships: my family, friends and my personal well-being?
  • Leading me to questionable environments or acquaintances?
  • Causing me to neglect my office administration or misuse funds?
  • Forcing me to become increasingly reluctant to face my clients and colleagues?
  • Leading me to lie to hide the amount I am consuming?
  • Making me feel shaky, sick or fatigued the next day?
  • Answering "yes" to any one of these questions indicates a serious or potentially serious consequence from use of alcohol or other drugs. Based on your answers you may need to get a professional assessment to help you understand more completely the effects of your use and the healthy ways you can learn to solve personal problems.